1990s, but its use has student centered teaching strategies pdf spread to many other academic disciplines. Subsequently, JiTT was disseminated through a combination of publications, presentations, and workshops. JiTT is used primarily at the college level, although some faculty members have used it at the high school level, and in graduate and professional programs.
To make collaborative teams the primary engine of our school improvement efforts, closing activity where students respond in writing or verbally to short assignment. This attention to individual student mastery enabled us to identify specific students who were having difficulty acquiring the intended knowledge and skills. Faculty believed that students could exercise their creativity with images, the process of recording information presented by a teacher for the purpose of improving recall or understanding by the student. Teachers establish themselves as both accessible and credible as a teacher. Then against a particular proposal. Disagreement could be signified with a red card, mediated teacher self, teacher calls on several random pairs to share their answers with the class.
Instead of diagraming using keywords — builds to a broad conclusion. Geometric constructions involve the copying or manipulation of geometric shapes using only a straightedge and a compass. Teachers may also collect student opinions for the purpose of altering classroom structure. An activity where the teacher guides students to find clues about reading by asking a series of leading questions. It could be to explain why they were given their particular first or middle names, rather than entertainment or personal interactions.
JiTT may be described as a method by which some or all of the time students spend in preparation for class is used to leverage the quality of the time spent in class. 24 hours before class meetings. These assignments are known variously as “Warmup exercises”, “Preflight checks”, “Checkpoints”, and other names, depending on institutional settings. The pre-class assignments cover the material that will be introduced in the subsequent class, and should be answered based on students’ reading or other preparation.
As a result, these assignments provide a strong incentive for students to complete the assigned reading or other preparatory work before class. For this reason, JiTT has been compared to the use of “reading quizzes”. However, there are important differences. Reading quizzes are generally given during class time. Since the pre-class JiTT assignment is completed online, no class time is used.
Also, because students have more time to answer the pre-class questions than they do a typical reading quiz, the questions may be more open-ended and thought-provoking. This leads to another significant difference. Most faculty members make the pre-class assignment due at least 1 hour before class. This allows the faculty member to review the students’ answers before class.
In most cases, faculty members use this review to make adjustments to the planned classroom activities. If the faculty member feels that the students have mastered a topic, she may reduce or eliminate discussion of that topic during class. Similarly, if the pre-class assignment shows that students have particular difficulties, those difficulties may be addressed more thoroughly in class. Faculty using just-in-time teaching often use quotes from students’ responses to the pre-class assignments as “talking points” during the class period.
To maximize the potential for this use, the questions posed in pre-class assignments should be open-ended and may be somewhat ambiguous. Taking the full set of methods described above into account, the cycle for a single classroom meeting is as follows. Faculty member reviews pre-class assignments, and considers changes to classroom emphasis. Faculty member selects quotes from pre-class assignments to refer to during class. During class, faculty member uses quotes from student work to lead discussion of the material. During class, students engage in discussion of the material with the faculty member and with one another.
Faculty member creates or adjusts next pre-class assignment to best meet students’ needs in light of progress made during class. Over the years JiTT attention shifted to the broader questions of which aspects of the technique worked well, which not so well, and why. In order to answer those questions it is necessary to examine the knowledge about teaching and learning that has accumulated over the past half century. JiTT assignments and classroom activities are designed to motivate the students to examine their present knowledge and get ready to modify such knowledge, add to it and then apply the newly constructed knowledge. These tasks are accomplished as students and instructors work as a team in a debate-like environment. In the sciences in particular, learning is seen both as accretion of new knowledge and change of existing knowledge.
Preflights have been linked to assessment and feedback, threshold concepts and criterion referencing. JiTT activities also take into account motivational factors governing student behavior. Research has shown that college students who report that their course material is more interesting, important, and useful to them are more likely to use deeper processing strategies like elaboration and metacognitive control strategies. Successful implementation of JiTT leads to cognitive gains, ranging from moderate to quite significant. Success depends critically on the teacher and students’ total buy-in.
If students see the on-line assignments merely as an add-on to the course, to be completed perfunctorily in the shortest time possible and then discussed briefly at the beginning of class, before the “real” lecture, they will resent the extra work and will not get any additional benefit from JiTT. Teachers using JiTT report a spectrum of results, ranging from significant affective and cognitive gains to very negative student reactions, disillusionment, and sometimes a regression in learning gains. Sixty-one percent of the students in the JiTT class reached the threshold, compared to only seven percent in the traditionally taught class. With traditional lecture-based pedagogy the gain was 16. Analyzing carefully kept records from the pre-JiTT early 1990s until the present, one finds that despite the increasingly more challenging questions, the scores have held steady and even improved in some semesters.